Contract Law I – Task 5


Sources and Documents

When two or more parties enter into or conclude a contract (szerződést köt), they have the serious intention of creating a legal obligation. However, signing (aláír) or executing a contract (szerződést olyan módon [pl. minden alaki követelménynek megfelelően, cégszerűen, stb.] aláír, hogy azzal jogi kötőerőt biztosít a dokumentumnak) are a bit different, they refer to a certain formality of creating legal agreements. These concepts are especially important, when we talk about contracts signed (or executed) by the representatives of companies: besides the signature of the representative, e.g. the managing director), the seal of the company has to be put on the document, too. Or, in the case of sale of land contracts, they have to be countersigned (ellenjegyzett) by an attorney-at-law. An agreement may be deemed invalid and unenforceable if it is not executed correctly. 

There are several ways to refer to what a law or a contract says about the relationship of the parties, e.g.:

The law stipulates (rendelkezik) the formal requirements of contracts.

The law provides that (rendelkezik) last wills and testaments must be signed by the testator in the presence of wittneses.

Company law provides for (rendelkezik, gondoskodik) the formation of companies.

The Civil Procedure Code regulates (szabályoz) how to conduct civil cases and trials.

The Ordinance proscribes (megtilt) the keeping of domestic animals in the district.

The EU Directive compels (kötelez) all member states to adopt anti-discrimination legislation in the field of employment.

Constitutional law prohibits (megtilt) discrimination.

Contract law specifies (meghatároz) who has contractual capacity.

The SPA (sale and purchase agreement) states (kijelent) that you have to pay the purchase price of the shares within 30 days. 

All contract set forth (meghatároz) the place, time and manner of performance. 

Steps were taken to ban (megtilt) the trade in ivory.

The non-competition clause determines (meghatároz, gyakran részletesen) the period of time and the geographical location where you are not allowed to start a similar business.

The lease agreement lays down (lefektet) the conditions based on which you may rent the property.

The employment agreement prescribes (előír) your rights and obligations as an employee. 

These regulations ensure (biztosítja) the humane treatment of all refugees.

The present Employment Agreement and the rights and obligations of the parties hereunder shall be governed by (irányadó) the laws of Hungary, especially the Hungarian Labour Code.

Whenever we refer to either particular sources of law (e.g. acts, regulations, ordinances, etc.) or other legal documents (e.g. contracts, wills, statements, etcc.), we may use several prepositions and expressions, e.g. 

Under, as per and pursuant to (szerint, alapján) can be used for sources law and legal documents, as well, e.g. 

Under / As per / Pursuant to the terms and conditions of the Employment Agreement, termination is only possible by giving at least 15 days’ notice.

Under / As per / Pursuant to the Hungarian Civil Code, consideration shall be indicated in writing in a sale and purchase agreement.’

Both parties shall perform their obligations under / as per / pursuant to the contract.

The buyer shall pay by monthly instalments under / as per / pursuant to Appendix 1.

In (full) compliance with (valaminek megfelelően, valamivel összhangban) is another typical expression used in legal texts.

In compliance with a court order, the company has ceased operations.

The workers were not in full compliance with the rules.

According to and in accordance with (szerint, alapján), however, are used slightly differently, rather for referring to the various sources of information, preferrably not in a contract or other official legal document, e.g. 

17 (1) This regulation has effect for the purpose of ensuring that the commercial agent is, after termination of the agency contract, indemnified in accordance with paragraphs (3) to (5) below or compensated for damage in accordance with paragraphs (6) and (7) below.

The judge or court, according to the facts and documents, shall deliver a judgment.

Nevertheless, in accordance with (but not according to!) can be found in many contracts.



according to – szerint, alapján

as per – szerint, alapján

to ban – megtiltani

to compel sy to do sg – kötelezni valakit valamire

to conclude a contract – szerződést kötni

to countersign a contract – ellenjegyezni

to determine – meghatározni (gyakran részletesen)

to ensure – biztosítani

to enter into a contract – szerződést kötni

to execute a contract – szerződést olyan módon (pl. minden alaki követelménynek megfelelően, cégszerűen, stb.) aláírni, hogy azzal jogi kötőerőt biztosítson a dokumentumnak

to be governed by – irányadó valamire nézve

in accordance with – szerint, alapján

to be in (full) compliance with – valaminek megfelelően, valamivel összhangban

to lay down – lefektetni

to prescribe – előírni

to prohibit – megtiltani

to proscribe – megtiltani

to provide (that) – rendelkezni

to provide for – rendelkezni, gondoskodni

pursuant to – szerint, alapján

to regulate – szabályozni

to set forth – meghatározni

to sign a contract – aláírni szerződést

to specify – meghatározni

to state – kijelenteni

to stipulate – rendelkezni

under – szerint, alapján


aláírni szerződést – to sign a contract

biztosítani – to ensure

ellenjegyezni szerződést – to countersign a contract

előírni –to prescribe

irányadó valamire nézve – to be governed by

kijelenteni –to state

kötelezni valakit valamire –to compel somebody to do something

lefektetni – to lay down

meghatározni – to set forth, to specify

meghatározni (gyakran részletesen) – to determine

megtiltani – to ban, to prohibit, to proscribe

rendelkezni – to provide (that), to stipulate

rendelkezni, gondoskodni valamiről – to provide for

szabályozni – to regulate

szerint, alapján according to, as per, in accordance with, pursuant to, under

szerződést kötni – to conclude a contract, to enter into a contract

szerződést olyan módon (pl. minden alaki követelménynek megfelelően, cégszerűen, stb.) aláírni, hogy azzal jogi kötőerőt biztosítson a dokumentumnak – to execute a contract

valaminek megfelelően, valamivel (teljes) összhangban – in (full) compliance with

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